Looking at the cutis from the outside to the inside, it has three layers: first the epidermis already mentioned above, then the dermis, and the subcutis. These layers are again subdivided, for example in the case of the epidermis, into the lower layers horny layer, translucent layer, granular cell layer, spinous layer, and basal layer. You can see that in the epidermis alone, various components form a complex structure that we are often not even aware of from the outside.
The dermis, for its part, consists largely of connective tissue, i.e. of collagen and elastin. It practically feeds the layer above it and is divided into the papillary layer (Stratum papillare) and the reticular layer (Stratum reticulare). It is also the home of hair roots, sweat and sebaceous glands, and cells that are reminiscent of the current German Chancellor, even though they are not named after her: the Merkel cells.
There are larger blood vessels, subcutaneous fat and loose connective tissue in the subcutis. Also located there are cells responsible for our sensory perception like the so-called Vater Pacini corpuscles. Other attached components are hair, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
Our body’s protective shell covers three large functional areas: Sensory perception (touching etc.), protection (protection against friction, elasticity to compensate pressure on the body, UV protection, protective acid mantle and grease film protect against chemical influences; horny layer against injuries etc.), and regulation (e.g. body heat from the release of sweat, which causes cooling due to the liquid’s evaporation).